Recycling of organic wastes such as crop residues, dung and urine from domesticated animals and wastage from slaughter house, human excreta and sewage, bio mass of weeds, organic wastes from fruit and vegetables production and household wastes, sugarcane trash, oilcakes, press mud and fly ash from thermal power plants. Material not suitable for direct application can better apply by composting and vermicompost.
The ultimate goal of sustainable agriculture is to develop farming system that are production and profitable, conserve the natural resources base, protect the environment and enhance health and safety, and to do so over the long term.
Two farming system have been proposed for ensuring sustainability. There are low input sustainable agriculture (LISA) and organic farming.
Low Input Sustainable Agriculture (LISA):
In this system minimal use of external production inputs is made. The production costs are obviously lower. The over all risk of the farmer is considerably reduced. Besides, the above advantages, pollution of surface and ground water is avoided and healthy food with very little or no pesticide residues are ensured. These systems held promise for both short and long term profitability. However, the system suffers from one serious drawback – continuation of low external input agriculture will perpetuate to the vicious circle of low inputs low yields which the third world countries with ever increasing population pressure can ill offered.
High input system, on the other hand, will fail sooner or later, as they are not economically and environmentally sustainable. What is the solution then? The optimal input farming system has the premisew of low input per unit of output and lays emphasis on low of diminishing returns.
Four factors are most important for better growth of plant:
1) Soil – 45%
2) Organic matter – 5%
3) Air – 25%
4) Water = 25%
Soil Classification on the Basis of Nutrient:
Medium soil content- 1. Organic carbon = 0.41- 0.60.
Available NPK kg/ ha- 1.N – 281 -420, 2. P – 14- 20, 3. K – 151- 200.
Organic Farming and Waste Recycling:
Organic farming is the backbone of sustainable agriculture. Organic farming mainly depend son Organic recycling: Industrial agriculture chemicals like fertilizer, pesticide, herbicide etc are not used or used to minimum extent necessary in this kind of farming.Organic farming may result in compatable performance as conventional agriculture and crops growth with high organic manure application could tolerate the pest and disease attack better. It is is sound and sustainable way of growing more food.
Organic recyclable waste include – crop residues, waste, farm industrial waste, multiple and sewage wastes. They are valuable sources of plant nutrient and humans in tropical and subtropical soils found in India, there is general deficiency of organic carbon and plant nutrients due to rapid loss of this component by bio- degradation. To make u for these losses, extensive utilization of organic residues in agriculture is essential. In addition they also protect the soil from erosion.
In India, there is a general potential for utilization of crop residues/ straw of major crops. Abort 141.2 MT. straws available and from that, contribute about 0.7, 0.84, and 2.1 MT .N.P.K respectively. If considering 50% crop residue utilized as animal feed, the rest can recycle.
Crop residue has wide C: N ratio due to this, immobilization nutrients. Care should be taken that before use, composing with efficient microbial inoculants.
1. Sugarcane Trash Compost:
Fresh sugarcane trash contains 0.36% N with a wide C:N ratio of 122:1.The composted trash contains – higher content of N ( 1.09 ) with reduced C:N ratio ( 20.1). Per hector availability of trash is about 6- 8 (over all country about 19 – 38) million tones).
2. Bio- gas Slurry:
Organic manures from animal wastes are very important nutrient sources in building up soil fertility. In India, estimated production of dung and urine abort 1002 and 658 million tones respectively. They contribute about 5.7 million tones of N P K with proper utilization. Biogas advantages as fuel (gas) and fertilizer (slurry) Dry slurry contains abort 1.8% N, 1.10 % p2o5 and 1.50% k2o.
The average nutrient content of vermicompost is much higher than that of F.Y.M. vermicompost contains 1.60 % N, 5.04% p205 and 0.80% k2o. The C:N ratio of vermicompost is much lower ( 1.6) than the FYM (1.30). Application of essential plant nutrient to crops.
4. Industrial Wastes:
Among the industrial by products, spent wash from distilleries and molasses and press mud from sugar factories have good manorial value. It is important to use only well decomposed press mud at 10 tones / ha. Addition of press mud improves the soil fertility it is reclamation agent in saline and sodic soils. coir waste is the by product of coil industry. Well decomposed coir waste of 12.5 t/ha with recommended fertilizer to ground nut and maize increase yield.
4. Municipal and Sewage Wastes:
This is one of the important components of organic wastes. In India, the total municipal refuse is abort 12 million tones / annum containing 0.5 %N.0.3%P.& 0.3%K. Sewage (liquid portion) sludge (solid portion) is available to on extent of 4 million tones /annum containing 3 % N.2 % P & 0.3% K . Such organic waste can be used carefully it may contains metals thus hazard to plants, animals & human beings.
5. Crop residues:
Residues left out after the harvest of the economic portion are called crop residues /straw. Cereal straw and residues contains abort 0.5% N, 0.6% Pand 1.5 %. The crop residues can be recycled by way of incorporation compost making or mulch material.
PSB: – Bacillus, pseudomonas, Aspergillus, Penicillium, mycorrhiza etc.
7. Green Manuring Crops:
Sannhemp, Dhaicha, Glyricidia, Sesbania etc.
8. Rice Husk:
It is major by- product of the rice milling industries. It is poor source of manure and nutrient 0.3 % N, 0.2 % P and 0.3 K. Rice husk should be incorporated into the wet soil and can be used in saline and alkaline soils to improve the physical condition. It can also be used as a bedding material for animals.