Genus : Rose
Family : Rosaceae
Soil and Climate:
Rose require fertile loamy soil. Soil should be deep having good moisture, holding, capacity with proper drainage. Roses are susceptible to water logging.
Plenty of Sun shine is required to produce top quality roses and it does not stand well in deep and continuous shade. Roses suffer heavily due to frost hence frost pruned area should be avoided. If grown in shade the occurrence of disease and pests will be more.
1. Hy. Tea : Gladiator, Papa meilland, Landora, First prize, Superstar
2. Floribunda : Banjaran, Iceberg, Angelface, Queen Elizabeth, Sea pearl
Importance of Root Stock :
Most of the modern roses are propagated by shield budding, hence raising of root stock is an important step. Most of the root stocks are propagated by cutting while modem roses by shield budding. Modem roses do not respond readily to cutting or these which will respond will produce a very poor root system and thus the development and growth of the plant will be affected, which ultimately affect on the quality, size of flowers.
Hence, due to the development of the poor root system in modern roses, they are commercially propagated by using a different rootstock which are wild in nature and produce very vigorous root system and compatible to the modem rose plant. These wild roses are resistant to pest and diseases and-hardy one.
Generally three root stocks are commonly used for the propagation of roses:
i) Rosa multiflora
ii) Rosa indica var. Odorata
iii) Rosa Edward or Rosa bourboriana var. Edward.
Rosa multiflora and Rosa indica var. odorata produced, plants satisfactory better in size and with more number of flowers than die plants budded on Edward rose. Due to susceptibility to powdery mildew use of Edward rose is restricted.
For Maharashtra and North India, Rosa indica var. Odorata is recommended while for South India, Rosa multiflora is-recommended.
Propagation Methods :
i) By cutting
ii) By shielding budding
i) Cutting : Rootstock of modem roses, miniature, shrub, climbers and ramblers
are usually propagated by cutting (stem).
ii) By Budding : Hy, Teas and Floribunda are multiplied by Shield budding by using a rootstock namely Rosa indica or Rosa multiflora and most favourable seasons for budding is winter season i.e. October to Januanry. It may extend up to March.
The place selected for planting roses are ploughed and harrowed properly during summer season and is kept exposed to Sun light. Then the pits- of 45 cm width and 60 cm depth are prepared at the required distance. In the beginning of rainy season FYM is mixed in the soil as well as pits are filled with mixture of FYM + Sand + Bone meal. During rainy season bud grafts are planted in the pig keeping bud joint 2 to 3 inches above ground level. After planting watering should be done regularly if there is a dry spell or as and when required.
Hy. Tea : 120 x120 cm
Floribunda : 60 x 90 cm
Miniatures : 30 x 60 cm
Climbers : 90 x 120 cm
Manures per Plant:
10 T Aa FYM + N -100 kg + P205 – 50 kg + K20 – 50 kg/ha.
Nitrogen in 4 split doses : First after pruning, 2nd, 3rd and 4ih at monthly interval
P and K in 2 split doses : First after pruning and 2nd in 3d month.
Water requirement of roses depends upon trie soil type and seasons. Therefore, irrigation be adjusted in such a way that soil will remain moist but not wet.
Pruning is a regulat operation followed in roses for (i) development of frame work of plant and (ii) for maximum number of flowers.
i) Pruning for Development of Frame Work of Plant:
It is done for giving shape to a plant and this involves removal of suckers unwanted branches, diseased and criss cross branches,
ii) Pruning for Maximum Number of Flowers :
In such type, pruning is mainly performed for obtaining maximum number of flowers on particular plant.
In roses flowers are borne terminally only on the current season growth which arises from the past season growth hence maximum number of new shoots are encouraged by pruning the mature and old branches.
Time and Type of Pruning :
In our agro-climate a sea produce flowers twice in a year (i) June to Sept (ii) Nov. -Dec. to March. Hence pruning time should be matched with the lime of flowering. Adult plants are pruned in may-June and in 2nd week of Oct. respectively for 2 bahars. Pruning in May-June is desirable only after the weather becomes cloudy indicating the onset of monsoon.
First pruning in rose is usually followed 3-4 months after planting and rose starts flowering 6-7 weeks after pruning.
In North India pruning .is done once in the month of October, while in South India and Maharashtra in June and October.
For obtaining quality bloom of commercial and exhibition quality pruning is usually done during October.
Depending upon the severity of pruning, pruning is classified as :
a) Light pruning
b) Medium or moderate pruning
c) Heavy or Hard pruning
Light pruning is done during June. Moderate and Medium pruning are done in October and again hard in October. For commercial crops medium pruning is done while for exhibition purpose hard pruning is followed.
Hard Teas are pruned to 5 to 6 buds and moderate pruning is necessary for commercial crops. For exhibition purpose severe or hard pruning is done to 3-4 buds.
In case of Floribunda, dwarf polyanlha and miniature pruning consists of removal of all weak and diseased growth and terminal tips of branches.
Harvesting of Flowers:
For local market flowers are harvested when one or two petals are open up partially or fully and for distant market flowers are harvested in tight bud stage having 2-3 sepals fully separated from flower bud. Leaves 2-3 leaflets basal leaves intact with mother stem. Soon after harvest place \he stem in a water bucket almost full length leaving only flowers above the water surface. Flower stems are dethomed at their base and graded according to their length. Roses are graded as follows on stem length basis: i)60 cm ii)45-60 cm iii)30 to 45 cm
After grading flowers are bunched m dozens of each grade, wrapped in the newspaper, keeping the flowers end slightly showing and packed in card board boxes.
In the second year, per plant 30-40 flowers are obtained, while from 3fd year onwards, about 50-65 flowers are obtained. The economic life of the plants is 8-10 years.
Cost and Returns from Cultivation of Roses (Rs. / ha)
Cost of Cultivation