Sequential Multiple Cropping are:
1. Sequence Cropping:
Defined as growing of two or more crops in sequence on the same piece of land in a farming year. Crop intensification is only in time dimension and there is no intercrop competition.
Depending on the number of crops grown in a year. It is called as double, triple and quadruple cropping involving two, three, and four crops, respectively.
E.g.1. Double cropping: 1.Rice – potato/ mustard 2. Sorghum- gram.
2. Triple Cropping:
1. Rice- potato-groundnut
2. Cowpea- mustard- jute.
3. Quadruple cropping: Kharif groundnut- leafy vegetables- wheat- summer green gram.
In India, food crop is predominantly grown in most suitable season and thus particular food crop is basic to the cropping system followed by the farmers.
According the cropping systems are usually referred to as:
1. Rice based cropping system.
2. Sorghum based cropping system.
3. Pearl millet based cropping system and
4. Wheat and gram based cropping system.
Some of the cropping systems based on commercial crops are:
i) cotton- based,
ii) Groundnut based,
iii) Sugarcane based,
iv) Plantation crop based and
v) vegetable- based cropping systems.
The grain production potential in different regions of the country ranges from 11-18t/ha. In maize- potato or totria- wheat- mug system followed IARI, New Delhi; it was possible to produce 14-15 tones of food per hectare per annum without impairing the soil health. The results of multiple cropping cropping demonstrations under irrigated condition showed that production potential can be as high as 19.8 t/ha in cereal – based cropping system of rice-rice-rice. All rice sequence is followed in some pockets of the river command areas of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
Systems with more than three crops: Bradfield experimental at IRRI, Philippines, with various cropping pattern that could maximize productivity per unit area. The most successful pattern was a sequence of five crops consisting of rice, sweet potato, soybean, sweet corn and green soybeans. The tillage pattern varied for each crop and number of days to harvest was 102, 100, 85, 66 and 60, respectively. This pattern gave three times higher gross income than normally obtained in a rice-rice pattern.
Crop sequence under irrigated upland conditions At United State, a four crop sequence of green gram- maize- potato- wheat gave the highest production of 13.6 t /ha. However, three crop sequence of green gram- maize- wheat was found to be the most ideal for the small and marginal farmers.
Crop sequences and their production potential, United State.