Modern biotechnology, especially recombinant DNA technique, has been implicated quite a lot in agriculture and livestock area. Recombinant DNA technique’s purpose is to obtain high quality seeds. The process in general is by placing quality genes from one organism to another through microorganisms in nature. This application can be seen in the forming process of plant’s recombinant DNA using Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector that has Tumor Inducing plasmid that can merge with DNA in plants.
Here are ten examples of biotechnology applications or advantages in agriculture and livestock departments:
- Transgenic Rice
Recombinant DNA technique can be used to obtain transgenic rice crops. An example would be the rojolele transgenic rice that can express lactoferrin and withstand cold weather. It is a result of placing the genes of animals that can withstand cold weather into the chromosome of the rice plant.
- Dairy Cows with Human Hormone
Recombinant DNA technology can insert lactoferrin gene in humans that produce HLF to dairy cows. With this biotechnology application, we can get dairy cows that produce milk with lactoferrin, for example the Herman cows.
- Bovine Somatotrophin (bST)
This modern technology is achieved by inserting somatotrophin gene in cows to the plasmid of Escherichia coli bacteria. bST then can be added to livestock’s food in order to increase the production of meat and milk from cattle.
- Embryo Cloning
For example in several types of dairy cows, embryo cloning is done to get high quality offsprings.
- Pest-Free Cotton Plants
Pest-free transgenic cotton plant is achieved by inserting delta endotoxin genes of Bacillus thuringiensis into the cotton plant using the recombinant DNA technique. Then, the plant will produce delta endotoxin that when reacting with enzymes inside insect’s stomach will be toxic which then will kill said insect.
- No-Wilting Flowers
Growth hormone that causes flowers to wilt is the ethylene gas. Wilting flower happens because of sensitive genes in flower petals. If we change those genes into anti-sensitive genes, then wilting can be prevented or delayed. For example is the existence of carnation flowers that last up to three weeks when normally, they last only up to three days.
- No-Rotting Fruits
Ethylene hormone stimulates fruit maturing and ripening. Through genetic engineering, this can be prevented or delayed. An example is the Flavr Savr tomato.
- TMV Resistant Tobacco
Recombinant DNA technique can be applied to achieve TMV resistant tobacco plants. This technique was developed by Beachy, a scientist from University of Washington in the United States. This is done by combining Ti plasmid with TMV resistant genes, and then it’s inserted into the chromosome of tobacco plants. Said chromosome then is multiplied through plant tissue isolation method.
- Fertilizer by Bio-SP Technology
Organic fertilizer is made of microorganisms that can reduce the use of organic acid to prevent pollution with less cost. An example is the superphospate fertilizer that is made with Bio-SP technology using phosphate solvent microorganism.
- Synthetic-Natural Fabric
Using bacteria that can synthesize polyester, we can get fabric that isn’t easy to tear.