According to the Water Supply:
i) Rain fed farming.
ii) Irrigated farming.
i) Rain Fed Farming: Agriculture mainly depends on the rainfall in most part of the country. 80% of the total cultivated arable land is rain fed. Rain fed farming is very risky system of farming where the success of the crop depends on the cycle of the monsoon. Timely rainfall is the pre-requisite of this farming. The uneven rainfall is quite detrimental to crop production.
Characteristics of Rain Fed Farming:
1. Crop and varieties, which can withstand moisture stress should be cultivated.
2. Kharif crops sown after receiving monsoon.
3. Not possible to adopt improved methods of cultivation only one or two crops are grown.
4. Crops rotation is not followed.
5. Soils of these areas are deficits in nutrient.
6. Mixed cropping should be practiced and adopt deep-rooted crops.
7. Short duration varieties fit well in rain fed areas.
8. The crops that are tolerant to drought should be cultivated.
9. Soil moisture should be preserve by mulching, FYM application.
10. Soil erosion which may be called “Creeping death” of the soil is a worldwide problem, so necessary measures should adopt to keep the soil productive.
Principles of relevant components of environmentally sustainable farming systems should include.
1. Reduce soil erosion and improving soil conservations.
2. Inclusion of legumes and cover crops in crop rotations.
3. Agro-forestry as an alternate land use system and
4. Judicious use of organic waste.
ii) Irrigated Farming:
The crop can be grown throughout the year; moisture is not a limited factor.
1. The round the year cropping pattern becomes possible.
2. Intensive cropping is possible.
3. Production can be increased by proper utilization of productive resources.
4. Crop rotation can be executed properly due to adequate irrigation facility.
5. Manuring is safely done in irrigated crop.
6. The field experiment is possible, because of timely irrigation facility.