Definition: It is methods in which water is spread into air and allowed to fall on the ground surface some what resembling.
Water is forced under pressure through small nozzle/orifice which gets broken up to into droplets and fall back on the ground. Slow circular revolution is impacted to the nozzle uniformally covered the ground surface. The rate of application should not be more than the infiltration rate of the soil.
Adaptability of sprinkler irrigation
- Sprinkler irrigation can be adopted where land reveling is uneconomical and other method of surface irrigation cant carried out.
- Adapted to soils to pours highly avoidable or relatively impermeable which are difficult to irrigate by other methods like furrow, border etc.
- Where it is designed to go for frequent irrigation.
- It is designed to minimum cost towards labours, fertilizer, and irrigation.
Advantages of Sprinkler Irrigation:
- It can be used for almost crops expect paddy & jute.
- System can be adopted under varied topographic condition and especially suitable to steep-slope and irregular topography.
- Soils-method is particularly suited for sandy soils having high infiltration rate.
- It can eliminate surface run off of irrigation water (run off elimination)
- To protect the crop against frost & high temp.
- To reduce labour cost for irrigation as compared with surface method.
- Savings in land construction of channel to the field.
- It saves fertilizer & water as ferti-irrigation can be carried out.
- Land leveling is not essential for sprinkle irrigation.
- Gives higher water use efficiency.
Limitations of sprinkle irrigation:
- Not suitable for very fine texture soil (<4mm/her)
- Uneven distribution of water due to distortion by high water.
- More evaporation losses.
- Require clean, water free from debris sand slit & clay particles.
- Saline water can no be used.
- Initial cost is high.
- High operating power is high (5-10kg/cm)
- Unsuitable climate condition sprinkling may be encouraging spread of disease.
- Ripening softy fruits need protection from the spray.