According to Production of Land, Labour and Capital Iinvestment:
The farmer on given plot of land obtains more or less definite quantity of yield of any particular time.
If he wants to increases his output he can either
i) Bring more land under cultivation
ii) Apply more labour and capital to the same piece of land.
a) Intensive Cultivation:
In intensive cultivation more labour and capital used in the same piece of land. In other words land remains fixed in quantity while other factors are increased. If the same land is rare due to population pressure, while labour and capital are comparatively cheap, intensive cultivation is preferred than extensive cultivation. The application of intensive cultivation method depends mainly upon-
i) Increasing population and
ii) Technical improvement.
In the earlier stages of development population was small and technical knowledge of agriculture was also limited hence extensive method was adopted but, as population increases intensive cultivation become necessary and improvement in technique make its adoption is possible.
b) Extensive Cultivation:
When more area is brought under cultivation to increases the output it is termed as extensive cultivation. In extensive cultivation land is chiefly available but availability of other factors increases less proportionately. A cultivator wishing to increases his output may follow either intensive method or extensive method but the selection of these two methods is based on cost. If following extensive cultivation than by following intensive cultivation can raise the additional output more cheaply, extensive method of cultivation will be useful. If on the other hand intensive cultivation seems to be the cheaper method he will naturally adopt it. If land is cheaper and it can be had at a normal cost while labour and capital are comparatively costlier, extensive cultivation will be cheaper method of obtaining increased output. In early times when land was plentiful extensive cultivation was followed. The extensive and intensive cultivation go side by side in a country for a certain period of time and afterwards intensive cultivation may become more important method. In most of the countries extensive and intensive methods of cultivation generally go hand in hand.
According to the Value of Products or Income or on the basis of Comparative Advantages:
The farm in which 50% or more income of total crop production is derived from a single crop is called specialized farming or The farm in which only single crop is cultivated for selling in the market and the income of the farm depends mainly on that crop is called specialized farming by Hopkins.
According to the definition if 50% income is derived from paddy from any farm this is called paddy farm similarly sugarcane farm wheat farm, vegetable farm, orchard farm etc.